The first indications of human presence on the Hills are traced to the east of the Hill of the Muses (Philopappos) between 3200 and 2000 B.C. The existence of a group of dwellings as well as a large grave, dated between 2000 and 1600 B.C., are documented in the same area. The archaeological finds are scattered and fragmented, therefore the wider area of the Hills remains largely unexplored in terms of archaeological research. It is possible that the modern structures have covered to a great extent the pre-historic remains, or may have even destroyed them.
Immerwahr 1971, 97–98; Pantelidou 1975, 45–141; Pantelidou-Gofa 1996.